The Centre conducts multidisciplinary research to develop fundamental understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infectious diseases of animals and applies this to enhancing control of disease through improved strategies for vaccination, diagnosis and management. Our expertise extends across the full range of production animal species (cattle, sheep, poultry and pigs), as well as companion animal species (dogs, cats and horses) and wildlife.
Among the achievements of the Centre are the development of novel diagnostic antigens for serological diagnosis of mycoplasmosis in poultry and pigs, and the development of novel vaccines to control disease caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma bovis, chicken anaemia virus and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. The mycoplasma vaccines developed by the Centre are marketed under the trade names Vaxsafe MG, Vaxsafe MS and Vaxsafe MHP. Our vaccines against M. bovis, chicken anaemia virus and infectious laryngotracheitis virus are currently being evaluated by commercial collaborators.
We are part of the NHMRC National Centre of Excellence in Antimicrobial Stewardship (NCAS), with the aim of optimising the use of antimicrobial therapy in production and companion animals.
In addition to discovery-based research, APCAH also conducts contract research for the development and registration of novel animal health products to international standards and provides microbiological diagnostic services.
Get in contact
Professor Amir Hadjinoormohammadi
APCAH Deputy Director
Head of Anatomic Pathology and Avian Diseases Divisions
Ph: +61 3 9731 2275
Mobile: 0428 502 324
Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Science
The University of Melbourne
250 Princes Highway
Werribee VIC, 3030, Australia
Pathogenesis and epidemiology of infectious disease
A fundamental understanding of the genetic basis of virulence and of the host response to infection, as well as of the behaviour of infectious pathogens in animal populations, is essential to rational development of improved control measures. APCAH staff and students have conducted research that has:
- Discovered the role played by recombination between attenuated vaccines in the genesis of novel virulent strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccines, and demonstrated the role of recombination in the evolution of other major animal herpesviruses.
- Discovered the basis for high frequency antigenic variation in pathogenic mycoplasmas, work that has explained the persistence of these important infectious agents and that has explained problems encountered in serological diagnosis.
- Defined the immunomodulatory effect of glycoprotein G of infectious laryngotracheitis virus and shown that deletion of the gene encoding it reduces the virulence of this important viral pathogen. This work has led to the development of a novel attenuated vaccine to control infectious laryngotracheitis.
- Demonstrated that high concentrations of Rhodococcus equi are exhaled by young foals and thus that they may represent a contagious risk to each other. This work has led to suggestions for changes in management aimed at reducing the prevalence and severity of this disease on horse studs.
- Defined the major bacterial pathogens responsible for peracute mastitis in sheep in Australia, indicating the targets for future vaccination strategies.
- Identified virulence factors required by E. coli to cause disease in the respiratory tract in chickens and in the reproductive tract in dogs.
- Identified key indicators of susceptibility to endometritis in mares.
Our recent studies have been applying high throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis to discovery of novel pathogens and to conducting detailed genetic mapping studies for epidemiological investigations. We have also been integrating genomics and metabolomics to explore the roles of specific genes in virulence.
Bacterial and viral vaccines developed in APCAH include:
- Mycoplasma gallisepticum ts-11, an attenuated live vaccine strain that is licensed through the world for control of mycoplasmosis in chickens.
- Mycoplasma synoviae MS-H, an attenuated live vaccine strain that is licensed through the world for control of mycoplasmosis in chickens.
- Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae ts-19, an attenuated live vaccine strain that is licensed for control of enzootic pneumonia in pigs.
- An attenuated vaccine against infectious laryngotracheitis virus that is currently being assessed for development by commercial partners.
- We have also developed candidate vaccines for the control of colibacillosis in poultry and mycoplasmosis in cattle.
Diagnostic test development
APCAH staff and students have developed novel recombinant antigens for improved serological diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and laryngotracheitis virus infections. The ELISAs based in these antigens have offered infectious improved sensitivity and specificity over previously available assays and a number of these antigens are now the basis of commercially available kits produced by our commercial collaborators.
Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays have been developed for most major bacterial and viral pathogens of poultry and applied to diagnosis and strain differentiation. These assays are offered to the industry and the public through our diagnostic laboratory and offer improved sensitivity and specificity over previously available assays, as well as strain differentiation for some pathogens.
Polymerase chain reaction assays have been developed to detect feline and equine respiratory pathogens and are provided as a diagnostic service to the veterinary profession.
The primary goal of antimicrobial stewardship is to optimise clinical outcomes while minimising unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including the emergence of resistance. Given the association between antimicrobial use and the selection of resistant pathogens, the frequency of inappropriate antimicrobial use is often used as a surrogate marker for the avoidable impact on antimicrobial resistance. The combination of effective antimicrobial stewardship with a comprehensive infection control program has been shown to limit the emergence and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.
Contract testing of animal health products
APCAH conducts safety and efficacy testing of animal health products to international Good Laboratory Practice standards for commercial partners. We also routinely perform potency, innocuity and freedom from adventitious agents testing on poultry vaccines for a range of clients.
We are able to house poultry in HEPA-filtered isolators under specific pathogen free conditions.
Our animal house and supporting laboratory facilities are accredited by the National Association of Testing Authorities to perform biological testing.
Our facilities have been used to prepare dossiers for successful national and international applications for registration of veterinary vaccines.
APCAH’s diagnostic laboratories, based on our Werribee campus, provide serological and virological diagnostic services to the poultry industry. We also provide a routine veterinary bacteriology service.
More specialised services include a comprehensive suite of diagnostic polymerase chain reaction assays for rapid diagnosis of poultry diseases and, for some pathogens, strain identification.
We also provide polymerase chain reaction diagnostic assays for identification and discrimination of viral and bacterial pathogens causing upper respiratory tract disease in cats and viral respiratory and abortigenic pathogens of horses.
Submission forms and price guide
- APCAH Customer Commercial Price List (PCR & Serology)
- APCAH Guide for collection & submission of poultry blood samples for serology testing
- APCAH guide for submission of specimens for diagnostic PCR (price guide)
- APCAH Guide for submission of specimens for Feline URT & chlamydia daignostic PCR
- FORM-ACC-SVL-01B Serology-Virology submission form
- FORM-SSF-PCR-01D EHV-1&4 PCR Sample submission form
- FORM-SSF-PCR-03B Poultry Diagnostic PCR submission form
- FORM-SSF-PCR-04B Feline upper respiratory disease & Chlamydia sample submission form
- Poultry post mortem submission form
Our staff and students work on projects that bridge from fundamental studies of molecular biology, pathogenesis and epidemiology, through to applied studies in vaccine and diagnostic test development.
They have been the recipients of multiple awards from national and international veterinary and scientific organisations, including:
- Derrick Edward Award of the International Organisation for Mycoplasmology (P. Markham)
- Houghton Trust Lecture Award by the World Veterinary Poultry Association (A. H. Noormohammadi)
- The Science and Innovation Award for Young People in Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (Bureau of Rural Science) (J. M. Devlin, N. Wawegama)
- Australian Research Council Future Fellowship (J. M. Devlin)
- The Gilruth Prize of the Australian Veterinary Association
- The Ian Clunies Ross Memorial Award of the Australian College of Veterinary Scientists (G. F. Browning)
- The Clunies Ross Medal of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (K. G. Whithear)
Dr Oluwadamilola (Dami) Omotainse
Yasodhara Deepachandi Gunasekara
Dr Michelle Renwick
Dr Ri Scarborough
Tilini De Silva
Muhammad Joan Ailia
Dinusha Gangoda Elapathage
Dr Anita Tolpinrud
Dr Jack Wheelahan
Honours and Undergraduate students
Brae Todd (2023)
Louize Zheng (2023)
Former Research Students
The Asia Pacific Centre for Animal Health has a long history of supervising research students. Below is an example of graduated students and their research topics
Dr Oluwadamilola Omotainse (2021)
Siyu Wang (2018)
- Amery-Gale J, Marenda MS, Owens J, Eden PA, Browning GF, Devlin JM. 2017. A high prevalence of beak and feather disease virus in non-psittacine Australian birds. J Med Microbiol 66:1005-1013.
- Auplish A, Clarke AS, Van Zanten T, Abel K, Tham C, Bhutia TN, Wilks CR, Stevenson MA, Firestone SM. 2017. Estimating the intra-cluster correlation coefficient for evaluating an educational intervention program to improve rabies awareness and dog bite prevention among children in Sikkim, India: A pilot study. Acta Trop 169:62-68.
- Chu DH, Stevenson MA, Nguyen LV, Isoda N, Firestone SM, Nguyen TN, Nguyen LT, Matsuno K, Okamatsu M, Kida H, Sakoda Y. 2017. A cross-sectional study to quantify the prevalence of avian influenza viruses in poultry at intervention and non-intervention live bird markets in central Vietnam, 2014. Transbound Emerg Dis doi:10.1111/tbed.12605.
- Cutcher Z, Williamson E, Lynch SE, Rowe S, Clothier HJ, Firestone SM. 2017. Predictive modelling of Ross River virus notifications in southeastern Australia. Epidemiol Infect 145:440-450.
- Cuttance EL, Laven RA, Stevenson MA. 2017. Variability in measurement of Pithomyces chartarum spore counts. N Z Vet J 65:192-197.
- Death C, Coulson G, Kierdorf U, Kierdorf H, Ploeg R, Firestone SM, Dohoo I, Hufschmid J. 2017. Skeletal fluorosis in marsupials: A comparison of bone lesions in six species from an Australian industrial site. Sci Total Environ 584-585:1198-1211.
- Gebrekidan H, Gasser RB, Stevenson MA, McGrath S, Jabbar A. 2017. Assessing the performance of multiplexed tandem PCR for the diagnosis of pathogenic genotypes of Theileria orientalis using pooled blood samples from cattle. Mol Cell Probes 31:70-75.
- Hardefeldt LY, Browning GF, Thursky K, Gilkerson JR, Billman-Jacobe H, Stevenson MA, Bailey KE. 2017. Erratum to "Antimicrobials used for surgical prophylaxis by companion animal veterinarians in Australia" [Vet. Microbiol. 203C (2017) 301-307]. Vet Microbiol 208:74-76.
- Hardefeldt LY, Browning GF, Thursky K, Gilkerson JR, Billman-Jacobe H, Stevenson MA, Bailey KE. 2017. Antimicrobials used for surgical prophylaxis by companion animal veterinarians in Australia. Vet Microbiol 203:301-307.
- Hardefeldt LY, Browning GF, Thursky K, Gilkerson JR, Billman-Jacobe H, Stevenson MA, Bailey KE. 2017. Antimicrobials used for surgical prophylaxis by equine veterinary practitioners in Australia. Equine Vet J doi:10.1111/evj.12709.
- Hardefeldt LY, Browning GF, Thursky KA, Gilkerson JR, Billman-Jacobe H, Stevenson MA, Bailey KE. 2017. Cross-sectional study of antimicrobials used for surgical prophylaxis by bovine veterinary practitioners in Australia. Vet Rec doi:10.1136/vr.104375.
- Hardefeldt LY, Holloway S, Trott DJ, Shipstone M, Barrs VR, Malik R, Burrows M, Armstrong S, Browning GF, Stevenson M. 2017. Antimicrobial Prescribing in Dogs and Cats in Australia: Results of the Australasian Infectious Disease Advisory Panel Survey. J Vet Intern Med 31:1100-1107.
- Hidano A, Sharma B, Rinzin K, Dahal N, Dukpa K, Stevenson MA. 2017. Revisiting an old disease? Risk factors for bovine enzootic haematuria in the Kingdom of Bhutan. Prev Vet Med 140:10-18.
- Legione AR, Patterson JL, Whiteley P, Firestone SM, Curnick M, Bodley K, Lynch M, Gilkerson JR, Sansom FM, Devlin JM. 2017. Koala retrovirus genotyping analyses reveal a low prevalence of KoRV-A in Victorian koalas and an association with clinical disease. J Med Microbiol 66:236-244.
- Loncoman CA, Hartley CA, Coppo MJ, Vaz PK, Diaz-Mendez A, Browning GF, Lee SW, Devlin JM. 2017. Development and application of a TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assay to study infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombination in the natural host. PLoS One 12:e0174590.
- Loncoman CA, Hartley CA, Coppo MJC, Vaz PK, Diaz-Mendez A, Browning GF, Garcia M, Spatz S, Devlin JM. 2017. Genetic diversity of infectious laryngotracheitis virus during in vivo co-infection parallels viral replication and arises from recombination 'hot-spots' within the genome. Appl Environ Microbiol doi:10.1128/AEM.01532-17.
- Loncoman CA, Vaz PK, Coppo MJ, Hartley CA, Morera FJ, Browning GF, Devlin JM. 2017. Natural recombination in alphaherpesviruses: Insights into viral evolution through full genome sequencing and sequence analysis. Infect Genet Evol 49:174-185.
- Marth CD, Firestone SM, Hanlon D, Glenton LY, Browning GF, Young ND, Krekeler N. 2017. Innate immune genes in persistent mating-induced endometritis in horses. Reprod Fertil Dev doi:10.1071/RD17157.
- Mohan V, Stevenson MA, Marshall JC, French NP. 2017. Characterisation by multilocus sequence and porA and flaA typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from samples of dog faeces collected in one city in New Zealand. N Z Vet J 65:209-213.
- Muleme M, Campbell A, Stenos J, Devlin JM, Vincent G, Cameron A, Graves S, Wilks CR, Firestone S. 2017. A longitudinal study of serological responses to Coxiella burnetii and shedding at kidding among intensively-managed goats supports early use of vaccines. Vet Res 48:50.
- Muleme M, Stenos J, Vincent G, Wilks CR, Devlin JM, Campbell A, Cameron A, Stevenson MA, Graves S, Firestone SM. 2017. Peripartum dynamics of Coxiella burnetii infections in intensively managed dairy goats associated with a Q fever outbreak in Australia. Prev Vet Med 139:58-66.
- Nadimpalli M, Lee SW, Devlin JM, Gilkerson JR, Hartley CA. 2017. Impairment of infectious laryngotracheitis virus replication by deletion of the UL[-1] gene. Arch Virol 162:1541-1548.
- Ng-Nguyen D, Stevenson MA, Dorny P, Gabriel S, Vo TV, Nguyen VT, Phan TV, Hii SF, Traub RJ. 2017. Comparison of a new multiplex real-time PCR with the Kato Katz thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA for the detection and differentiation of Taenia spp. in human stools. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11:e0005743.
- Ng-Nguyen D, Stevenson MA, Traub RJ. 2017. A systematic review of taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis in Vietnam. Parasit Vectors 10:150
- Olaogun OM, Kanci A, Barber SR, Tivendale KA, Markham PF, Marenda MS, Browning GF. 2017. Survey of Victorian small ruminant herds for mycoplasmas associated with contagious agalactia and molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri isolates from one herd. Aust Vet J 95:392-400.
- Rosales C, Krekeler N, Tennent-Brown B, Stevenson MA, Hanlon D. 2017. Periparturient characteristics of mares and their foals on a New Zealand Thoroughbred stud farm. N Z Vet J 65:24-29.
- Shaw T, Kudnig ST, Firestone SM. 2017. Diagnostic accuracy of pre-treatment biopsy for grading cutaneous mast cell tumours in dogs. Vet Comp Oncol doi:10.1111/vco.12346
- Skogvold K, Warren KS, Jackson B, Holyoake CS, Stalder K, Devlin JM, Vitali SD, Wayne AF, Legione A, Robertson I, Vaughan-Higgins RJ. 2017. Infectious Disease Surveillance in the Woylie (Bettongia penicillata). Ecohealth doi:10.1007/s10393-017-1254-9.
- Speight KN, Whiteley PL, Woolford L, Duignan PJ, Bacci B, Lathe S, Boardman W, Scheelings TF, Funnell O, Underwood G, Stevenson MA. 2017. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging koala populations in Victoria and South Australia: a case series. Aust Vet J 95:244-249.
- Teoh YT, Hii SF, Stevenson MA, Graves S, Rees R, Stenos J, Traub RJ. 2017. Serological evidence of exposure to Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia typhi in Australian veterinarians. Parasit Vectors 10:129.
- Tseng CW, Chiu CJ, Kanci A, Citti C, Rosengarten R, Browning GF, Markham PF. 2017. The oppD Gene and Putative Peptidase Genes May Be Required for Virulence in Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Infect Immun 85.
- Tseng CW, Chiu CJ, Kanci A, Noormohammadi AH, Browning GF, Markham PF. 2017. Safety and efficacy of a Mycoplasma gallisepticum oppD knockout mutant as a vaccine candidate. Vaccine doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.08.073.
- Wijesurendra DS, Chamings AN, Bushell RN, Rourke DO, Stevenson M, Marenda MS, Noormohammadi AH, Stent A. 2017. Pathological and microbiological investigations into cases of bacterial chondronecrosis and osteomyelitis in broiler poultry. Avian Pathol doi:10.1080/03079457.2017.1349872:1-12.
- Wijesurendra DS, Kanci A, Tivendale KA, Devlin JM, Wawegama NK, Bacci B, Noormohammadi AH, Markham PF, Browning GF. 2017. Immune responses to vaccination and infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum in turkeys. Avian Pathol 46:464-473.
- Williamson AJ, Sims NA, Thomas CDL, Lee PVS, Stevenson MA, Whitton RC. 2017. Biomechanical testing of the calcified metacarpal articular surface and its association with subchondral bone microstructure in Thoroughbred racehorses. Equine Vet J doi:10.1111/evj.12748.
- Agnew-Crumpton R, Vaz PK, Devlin JM, O'Rourke D, Blacker-Smith HP, Konsak-Ilievski B, Hartley CA, Noormohammadi AH. 2016. Spread of the newly emerging infectious laryngotracheitis viruses in Australia. Infect Genet Evol 43:67-73.
- Bond KA, Vincent G, Wilks CR, Franklin L, Sutton B, Stenos J, Cowan R, Lim K, Athan E, Harris O, Macfarlane-Berry L, Segal Y, Firestone SM. 2016. One Health approach to controlling a Q fever outbreak on an Australian goat farm. Epidemiol Infect 144:1129-41.
- Cowled BD, Stevenson MA, Madin B. 2016. An assessment of the association between soil pH and ovine Johne's disease using Australian abattoir surveillance data. Prev Vet Med 126:208-19.
- Cuttance EL, Stevenson MA, Laven RA, Mason WA. 2016. Facial eczema management protocols used on dairy farms in the North Island of New Zealand and associated concentrations of zinc in serum. N Z Vet J 64:343-50.
- Devlin JM, Vaz PK, Coppo MJ, Browning GF. 2016. Impacts of poultry vaccination on viruses of wild bird. Curr Opin Virol 19:23-9.
- Garner MG, East IJ, Stevenson MA, Sanson RL, Rawdon TG, Bradhurst RA, Roche SE, Van Ha P, Kompas T. 2016. Early Decision Indicators for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreaks in Non-Endemic Countries. Front Vet Sci 3:109.
- Hancock AS, Younis PJ, Beggs DS, Mansell PD, Stevenson MA, Pyman MF. 2016. An assessment of dairy herd bulls in southern Australia: 1. Management practices and bull breeding soundness evaluations. J Dairy Sci 99:9983-9997.
- Hancock AS, Younis PJ, Beggs DS, Mansell PD, Stevenson MA, Pyman MF. 2016. An assessment of dairy herd bulls in southern Australia: 2. Analysis of bull- and herd-level risk factors and their associations with pre- and postmating breeding soundness results. J Dairy Sci 99:9998-10008.
- Haydock LAJ, Pomroy WE, Stevenson MA, Lawrence KE. 2016. A growing degree-day model for determination of Fasciola hepatica infection risk in New Zealand with future predictions using climate change models. Vet Parasitol 228:52-59.
- Hidano A, Carpenter TE, Stevenson MA, Gates MC. 2016. Evaluating the efficacy of regionalisation in limiting high-risk livestock trade movements. Prev Vet Med 133:31-41.
- Hidano A, Dukpa K, Rinzin K, Sharma B, Dahal N, Stevenson MA. 2016. A cross-sectional survey of population demographics, the prevalence of major disease conditions and reason-specific proportional mortality of domestic cattle in the Kingdom of Bhutan. Prev Vet Med 130:1-9.
- Kayano M, Kadohira M, Stevenson MA. 2016. Risk factors for stillbirths and mortality during the first 24h of life on dairy farms in Hokkaido, Japan 2005-2009. Prev Vet Med 127:50-5.
- Legione AR, Amery-Gale J, Lynch M, Haynes L, Gilkerson JR, Sansom FM, Devlin JM. 2016. Chlamydia pecorum Infection in Free-ranging Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) on French Island, Victoria, Australia. J Wildl Dis 52:426-9.
- Legione AR, Patterson JL, Whiteley P, Firestone SM, Curnick M, Bodley K, Lynch M, Gilkerson JR, Sansom FM, Devlin JM. 2016. Koala retrovirus (KoRV) genotyping analyses reveal a low prevalence of KoRV-A in Victorian koalas and an association with clinical disease. J Med Microbiol doi:10.1099/jmm.0.000416.
- Legione AR, Patterson JL, Whiteley PL, Amery-Gale J, Lynch M, Haynes L, Gilkerson JR, Polkinghorne A, Devlin JM, Sansom FM. 2016. Identification of unusual Chlamydia pecorum genotypes in Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and clinical variables associated with infection. J Med Microbiol 65:420-8.
- Lightowlers MW, Donadeu M, Elaiyaraja M, Maithal K, Kumar KA, Gauci CG, Firestone SM, Sarasola P, Rowan TG. 2016. Anamnestic responses in pigs to the Taenia solium TSOL18 vaccine and implications for control strategies. Parasitology 143:416-20.
- Liu M, Du G, Zhang Y, Wu Y, Wang H, Li B, Bai Y, Feng Z, Xiong Q, Bai F, Browning GF, Shao G. 2016. Development of a blocking ELISA for detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection based on a monoclonal antibody against protein P65. J Vet Med Sci 78:1319-22.
- Marquetoux N, Stevenson MA, Wilson P, Ridler A, Heuer C. 2016. Using social network analysis to inform disease control interventions. Prev Vet Med 126:94-104.
- Marth CD, Firestone SM, Glenton LY, Browning GF, Young ND, Krekeler N. 2016. Oestrous cycle-dependent equine uterine immune response to induced infectious endometritis. Vet Res 47:110.
- Milne ME, Steward C, Firestone SM, Long SN, O'Brien TJ, Moffat BA. 2016. Development of representative magnetic resonance imaging-based atlases of the canine brain and evaluation of three methods for atlas-based segmentation. Am J Vet Res 77:395-403.
- Muleme M, Stenos J, Vincent G, Campbell A, Graves S, Warner S, Devlin JM, Nguyen C, Stevenson MA, Wilks CR, Firestone SM. 2016. Bayesian Validation of the Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay and Its Superiority to the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and the Complement Fixation Test for Detecting Antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in Goat Serum. Clin Vaccine Immunol 23:507-14.
- Omaleki L, Browning GF, Allen JL, Markham PF, Barber SR. 2016. Molecular epidemiology of an outbreak of clinical mastitis in sheep caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. Vet Microbiol 191:82-7.
- Panicker IS, Kanci A, Markham PF, Browning GF. 2016. Effect of differing +2 amino acids on export of a heterologous PhoA lipoprotein in Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Microbiology 162:1300-9.
- Phipps AJ, Beggs DS, Murray AJ, Mansell PD, Stevenson MA, Pyman MF. 2016. Survey of bovine colostrum quality and hygiene on northern Victorian dairy farms. J Dairy Sci 99:8981-8990.
- Plozza KL, Beggs DS, Mansell PD, Stevenson MA, Blackwood CB, Pyman MF. 2016. Postpartum anoestrus in five seasonally-calving dairy farms in Victoria, Australia. Aust Vet J 94:293-8.
- Probert WJ, Shea K, Fonnesbeck CJ, Runge MC, Carpenter TE, Durr S, Garner MG, Harvey N, Stevenson MA, Webb CT, Werkman M, Tildesley MJ, Ferrari MJ. 2016. Decision-making for foot-and-mouth disease control: Objectives matter. Epidemics 15:10-9.
- Quinteros JA, Lee SW, Markham PF, Noormohammadi AH, Hartley CA, Legione AR, Coppo MJ, Vaz PK, Browning GF. 2016. Full genome analysis of Australian infectious bronchitis viruses suggests frequent recombination events between vaccine strains and multiple phylogenetically distant avian coronaviruses of unknown origin. Vet Microbiol 197:27-38.
- Stevenson MA, Morgan PL, Sanhueza J, Oakley GE, Bateman RS, Mc FA, Mac PN, Owen KL, Burton L, Walsh S, Weston J, Marchant R. 2016. A case-control study to identify risk factors for acute salmonellosis in New Zealand dairy herds, 2011-2012. Epidemiol Infect 144:2154-64.
- Vaz PK, Horsington J, Hartley CA, Browning GF, Ficorilli NP, Studdert MJ, Gilkerson JR, Devlin JM. 2016. Evidence of widespread natural recombination among field isolates of equine herpesvirus 4 but not among field isolates of equine herpesvirus 1. J Gen Virol 97:747-55.
- Vaz PK, Job N, Horsington J, Ficorilli N, Studdert MJ, Hartley CA, Gilkerson JR, Browning GF, Devlin JM. 2016. Low genetic diversity among historical and contemporary clinical isolates of felid herpesvirus 1. BMC Genomics 17:704.
- Vaz PK, Mahony TJ, Hartley CA, Fowler EV, Ficorilli N, Lee SW, Gilkerson JR, Browning GF, Devlin JM. 2016. The first genome sequence of a metatherian herpesvirus: Macropodid herpesvirus 1. BMC Genomics 17:70.
- Wawegama NK, Markham PF, Kanci A, Schibrowski M, Oswin S, Barnes TS, Firestone SM, Mahony TJ, Browning GF. 2016. Evaluation of an IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Serological Assay for Detection of Mycoplasma bovis Infection in Feedlot Cattle. J Clin Microbiol 54:1269-75.